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Origin of Delhi & Tomars

220px-Draupadi_and_Pandavas Roughly 3000 years ago, when Lord Krishna advocated Pandavas in the court of Dhritrashtra, Prince Duryodhna half heartedly agreed to give five villages to them. These villages were Paniprastha (now Panipat), Sonaprastha (now Sonipat), Bahakprastha (now Baghpat), Tilprastha (now Tilpat, in Faridabad) and largest of all, Khandavprastha (later changed to Indraprastha). These villages suffered badly during the war of Mahabharta in Kurukshetra. While the Pandavas were ruling these villages from their small palace, which they called Indrapatta or Indraprastha, they built five temples in the vicinity. One of these temples is the Yogmaya Temple, around which the town of Yoginipura was established (now called Mehrauli).

Later, this area was take up by Mauryans. Some historians say that in 50 BC, a Mauryan King, Raja Dhillu named this town (Yoginipura) after him and started calling it “Dhilli” or “Dhillika”. Uptil here, the history is very ambiguous and mostly referred as Mythology. the only reference we get till here is from Vikrami Samvat 1189-1230 by Vibudh Shridhar, where he writes:

हरियाणए देसे असंखगाम, गामियण जणि अणवरथ काम|
परचक्क विहट्टणु सिरिसंघट्टणु, जो सुरव इणा परिगणियं|
रिउ रुहिरावट्टणु बिउलु पवट्टणु, ढिल्ली नामेण जि भणियं|

Transaltion: There are countless villages in the country called Haryana. Villagers there work very hard and are very brave. They don’t fear anyone or accept anyone’s dominion. They are centrally managed from Dhilli.

 

Maharaja Anangpal I

What happened in 736 AD, started developing the history of Delhi, as we see it today. This was the year, when Raja Anangpal I (or Bilandev Tomar) established Delhi. Our old books mention it in this manner:

जहिं असिवर तोडिय रिउ कवालु, णरणाहु पसिद्धउ अणंगवालु ||
वलभर कम्पाविउ णायरायु, माणिणियण मणसंजनीय ||

Means, Anangvalu (read Anangpal) is famous everywhere and break skulls of his enemies. He even caused the great Sheshnaag (on which earth is stable) to shake.

The following lines from a tablet in Delhi Museum also confirms that  Tomars established this city of Delhi

देशोऽस्ति हरियानाख्यो पॄथिव्यां स्वर्गसन्निभः |
ढिल्लिकाख्या पुरी तत्र तोमरैरस्ति निर्मिता ||

Translation: In the country called Haryana, which is equivalent to heaven on earth, Tomars built a city called “Dhillikakhya” (read Dhillika).

The first Tomar king of Delhi, Maharaja Anangpal had to rule a small piece of land. He had much free time to produce 10 heirs. (Don’t you dare ask me any question about Dhritrashtra, who had 98-100 sons). These 10 sons of Anangpal were sent to rule different pieces of land in the country of Tomars.

Son of Anangpal Tomar Territory’s modern name
1 Vasudev Tomar Delhi
2 Satrawala Tomar Bhiwani
3 Indrapal Tomar Aligarh, Badaun, Barelley, Shahpur
4 Kodyana Tomar
5 Bodana Tomar
6 Nihal Tomar
7 Somwal Tomar Meerut, Ghaziabad, Mujjafarnagar
8 Saleriya Tomar
9 Sipala Tomar
10 Kaliya Tomar Part of Haryana and Rajasthan

NOTE: Tomars are also known as Tanwar and Tuar

The second emperor of Delhi, Raja Vasudev Tomar ruled from 754-773 AD. The sixth emperor of Delhi Karnpal Tuar sent 5 of his sons to establish new townships.

Son of Karanpal City Established
1 Vachhal Tomar 9th king of Delhi
2 Nagdeo Tomar Nagor & Nagda near Ajmer
3 Krishanrai Tomar Kishangarh near Ajmer & Khasganj between Etah and soron
4 Nihalrai Tomar Narayanpur near Alwar
5 Somasi Tomar Ajabpur between Alwar and Jaipur
6 Harpal Tomar Harsola & Harsoli near Alwar

On 26th April 1005 AD, Raja Jaipal Tuar became the 14th king of Delhi. Before he came to power, he had already fought with the then most powerful Amir Subaktegin of Ghazni (predecessor of Muhammed Ghazni). He was later always referred to as the Great Jaipal Tomar, the king of Delhi and Lahore. He fought many wars and even lost the kingdom of Kannauj to Rangatdhwaj Gahadavala (Rathore), which plaid an important role in the later history if India. His younger brother Jethpal Tomar captured Paithan and his descendants are called Pathania Rajpoots.

Maharaja Anangpal II

On June 17th, 1051 AD, another powerful person was crowned as the 16th king of Delhi. He was Raja Anangpal the second. He was also known as Anekpal or Anaypal. He practically changed the shape of Delhi and made it much more powerful. He established LAL KOT, the very first fort of Delhi. This fort is presently situated in the Sanjay Van, between Mehrauli and Jawaharlal Nehru University. It’s bastions and ‘Burjs’ are still existing and covered with thick forest. During all these years, several temples were built in and around this area. Maharaja Anangpal II uprooted the Vishnu Stambh installed by Raja Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya) in Udaygiri caves (MP). This Stambha had a Garuda (or Chakra) on top and was made of rust-resistant composition of the metals with a high content of Phosphorus. Anangpal got this IRON PILLAR to Delhi and installed outside his Fort. It now stands proudly in the courtyard of Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque of Qutb Complex in Mehrauli. He even got his name inscribed on it with date. Prithviraj Rasao talks about it in this manner: IronPillar

हुं गड्डि गयौ किल्ली सज्जीव हल्लाय करी ढिल्ली सईव |
फिरि व्यास कहै सुनि अनंगराइ भवितव्य बात मेटी न जाइ ||

Means: Anangpal established the “Killi” (nail) in Dhilli. This tale cannot be removed from history ever.

It should also be noted that some historians believe that since this Iron Pillar was not fixed properly, people started calling it “Dheeli Killi” (Loose nail). From here, the name Dhillika came up. However, if this is true, how come we get reference of this name even 500 years before this guy attempted this brave act.

9 of his sons established different cities in India

Son of Anangpal II Cities Established
1 Bhumpal Tomar Narwar, near Gwalior
2 Indrapal Tomar Indragarh
3 Rangraj Tomar Taragarh (near Ajmer)
4 Achalraj Tomar Achner (near Bharatpur)
5 Draupad Tomar (ruled from) Hansi
6 Sisupal Tomar Sirsa (in Haryana) & Siswal (Sirsa Patan)
7 Surajpal Tomar Surajkund (Faridabad)
8 Beejpal Tomar Buhana

Interesting part is that the next king of Delhi, Raja Tejpal Tomar, who established Tejora (between Gurgaon and Alwar) also built the famous Shiv  temple in Agra called “Tejo-Mahalya”. This temple was very unique in every sense. Some historians link it with the present Taj Mahal. however, it must be noted that no connection of Taj Mahal being Tejomahalya was ever found by any established historians and only few fantasy writers tried to create a hype about it. Indians being very sentimental about the religious structures, easily fell prey to these false claims and started believing in what these writers had to spit.

Mahipal Tomar and Mahipalpur

The next king (18th ruler of Delhi), Raja Mahipal Tomar went little to north and established another town called “Mahipalpur”. This town today is near the Delhi International Airport and is flooded with hotels. The National Highway 8 (Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway) passes through this historic town. He even got back Hansi and Thanesar (then called Sthaneshwar) from Madud, grandson of Md. Ghazni. Mahipal also built a water Bund, walls of which still exist between Vasant Kunj and Mahipalpur in Delhi.

Maharaja Anangpal III

19th king of Delhi, Arkpal Tomar, or Dakatpal Tomar or more popularly known as Anangpal III was the last emperor of Delhi from Tomar Clan. He had his daughter rajkumari Kirtimalini married to Raja Someshwar Dev Chauhan of Ajmer. Anangpal III sent his 3 sons to rule different parts of country.

  1. Rao Salivaahanji Tomar (Rao Salunji) was sent to rule Tomaravati (aka Tanwaravati aka Toravati), which Anangpal II established in Patan, Rajasthan. It had 380 villages spread across 3000 sq. Km. He became the 1st ruler of this independent territory and his present descendant is Rao Sahib Digvijay Singhji, the head of Tomar Clan in India, who was crowned on 11th September 1991 as Rao of Patan.
  2. Rao Ajmalji Tomar, his second son settled at Pokhran and Jaisalmer. One of this descendants is “Baba Ramdevji”, the deity in Rajasthan.
  3. Rao Sohanpalji ruled Morena and later conquered Gwalior

PRCMaharaja Anangpal Tomar III called his daughter’s Son, the great Prithvi Raj Chauhan, the king of Ajmer, and gave him the throne of Delhi before proceeding towards Chambal down south. The marked the end of Tomar rule in Delhi and hence started the Chauhan Clan. Unfortunately, Prithviraj (aka Rai Pithora) was the first and last Chauhan ruler of Delhi. I’ll write about Prithviraj Chauhan and his conquest in later articles. This one was dedicated to Tomars, and especially the “Anangpals” of Delhi.

– Vikramjit Singh Rooprai

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31 thoughts on “Origin of Delhi & Tomars

  1. Vikramjeet bhai, thanks for taking out time and writing a followup of our walk.

  2. Nice informative article sir, I’ll surely wait for ur next article on PRC

  3. Pragya on said:

    Interesting but please give the references and sources of your information for this article…

  4. I am Tomar Rajput .. My great great grandfather lived in Sawai Modhopur region … Then they migrated to Bihar… I don’t know whether I belong to the same lineage but I was always curious … This is the most detailed write up that I found on web.. Thank Vikramjit Singh Rooprai … Hope to catch up again with you in some photo walk …
    Vivek

  5. A very useful piece of information indeed..clear alot of my doubts thnx

  6. sir sir tell me If TajMahal is not ‘Tejo-Mahalya’ the famous shiv -temple then where had gone the Tejo-Mahalya even there should be any evidences of this temple…????

    • Dear Anuj,
      Tejo-Mahalya could be some temple in past times but it does not have any connection with Taj Mahal. Some people tried to connect it with Taj Mahal but unfortunately they missed to consider some basic facts and they had lack of research. No one know where Tejo Mahalya is. However, the land of Taj Mahal was sold to Shahjahan by the Raja of Jaipur. If the hindu raja knew that there is such an important temple, he would have never sold the land to Mughals for construction purpose. Besides, the architecture of Taj Mahal matches with the elements at Humayun’s Tomb, Qutub Minar and many other tombs and mosques in North India. How is it possible for Hindu Masons to build a temple similar to a Muslim Tomb.
      Therefore, the theory of Tajmahal being TejoMahalya is a simple hoax.

  7. Excellent article. I don’t know why this part of history is not mentioned in the traditional history books in details. The history books tend to jump from Harshvardhan to Sultan Mahmud and forget about the 400 years inbetween.

  8. prashant on said:

    can anybody give the detail of nahar singh,sher singh,parvat singh,vijay singh

  9. Savant Singh Tomar on said:

    Good Article.. Factual.. But just a point which no historian wants to mention 01) Delhi was founded by Tomars 02)… Prithviraj Chauhan was given charge as a care taker of Delhi by the Tomars… He played foul when he got the news that the Tomars were returning from Exile/Chambal and ordered them to be killed. Tomars got to know about the plan and parked themselves little short of Delhi at Seekar & Jhunjhunu in Rajasthan and subsequently renamed themselves as Tanwars (in Raj) Tohars and some retained Tomars… These facts need to be published blatantly… and i am sure there would be adequate evidence.. also to say that there are very few Tomar families which give their daughters to Chauhans in marriage after this deed of Prithviraj Chauhan.
    03) If there could be corrections made in the history being published by various authors stating Prithviraj Chauhan as the last king of Delhi/or Delhi of Chauhans which is absolutely incorrect.

  10. tilavat sonal on said:

    nice website

  11. Lalit Pandey on said:

    Was there any Anandpal tomar ruler?

  12. Shahid Shera on said:

    I am a Muslim Rajput (MEO- Baghor pal). My great grand father’s family shifted to Alwar from Kishan Garh.
    According to my grand fathers memoirs, we trace our ancestory to Raja Anang Pal – Raja Bahu- Raja Nihal or ( Nul)- Bhoora- Nama – Sahil ( Bhurat Sal)- Jalan- Sher Singh ( known as Shera upon conversion to Islam)- Mustoo- Rustam- Usta- Mouj Khan- Salamat- Beer Bahan-Hasan Khan- Khuda Bux (1845 – 1921), my great grand father- Maj. Abdullah Khan ( 1897-1986), my grand father, who was a high official in the court of Maharaj Jai Singh.
    I have been able to trace Anangpal & Nihal( Nihal Rai) through a google search but could not find the name of others. If any one can share a light on this, I shall be eternally grateful as I do wish to know ‘who I am’ and ‘who my ancestors were’?

    • Shahid it is a difficult task. I will try to fetch the list. However, did you trtied talkking to someone in Haridwar, where shijras of all hindu and sikh families is kept. I am not sure about royal houses though.

      • Shahid Shera on said:

        Thank you Vikram. I don’t have access to any one there as I live in Karachi, Pakistan. I realise that it is a difficult task. Let’s hope that someone following your website could through some light on it. Shahid 

        Sent from my Samsung device

      • Let me work out something then. We have a person in Delhi, who did a research on Rajpoots of Delhi. Let me find him

  13. Dehlavi on said:

    Wow Vikramjit Ji!!! I am deeply attached to my city’s glorious history and your blogs are sacred writings for me! I have been reading materials related to Delhi’s history since early 2011, when I was at college. I started editing Wikipedia articles concerning Delhi’s history and even posted new articles!
    Arvinder Ji told me about you and I have not been disappointed at all! Your writings have exceeded what I was expecting. Marvellous stuff!

    I live at Hauz Khas, a historic place whose timeline overlaps with two eras- the Khilji Dynasty under Ala-ud-din Khilji and the Tughlaq Dynasty under Firoz Shah Tughlaq. The hauz (called Hauz Khas Lake today) after which it is named was excavated and re-excavated under Khilji and Tughlaq respectively. Whereas, the various structures erected around it belong to the Tughlaq period. I absolutely love being a resident of such a historic area!

    Keep up with your wonderful work Vikramjit Ji. Owing to the empires that expanded from here, Delhi’s imperial history is one of the most important and decisive in the Indian Subcontinent, at-least above the Satpura range. Two most prominent languages of the subcontinent, Hindi and Urdu, trace their origins to the Delhi region. As 22 Khwajaon Ki Chaukhat, or doorstep of 22 Sufi saints, Delhi is home to some of the most revered Sufi saints. Unfortunately, Delhi’s history lies neglected and has been shunned by successive governments, the latest in that string being withdrawal of World Heritage City nomination by the current government. The Partition of 1947 dealt a blow to Delhi as its Muslim inhabitants who had lived its past down generations left for Pakistan. Rapid, unchecked and unplanned urbanization didn’t help the cause, either.

    Delhi- the legendary city is fading away unnoticed. In light of this, initiatives like the ones taken by you are badly needed. The legend of Delhi perhaps dates beyond Rome’s or Athens’. Yet it is not perceived along the same lines as Rome or Athens or even Istanbul.

  14. Karamveer on said:

    Sir as per your concern tomar clan related to pandva’s . But pandav was chandravandhi and tomar is the gotra of suryavanshi.
    You can check it in jairajputana website.
    So i think there is some mistake may be

  15. Rajeshwar Singh Pathania on said:

    Thanks vikramjeet Singh for your informative article I had gone through the book written by Th. Raghunath Singh Pathania who has mentioned​ the relation between Tomar’s & Pathania.pathania’s are dissidents of great clan Tomar’s .We are proud to be the part of this clan . Hope to hear something new from you sir very soon

  16. Azmath on said:

    Sirji, I would love to meet you and be part of your historical walks around Delhi. We live in a era where communal forces have stained our history with the color of religion while all that happened were political decisions of the rulers and had nothing to do with anyone’s faith. Irrespective of my faith, i was born an Indian and i feel proud of every single stone wall be it of a temple, mosque, church, tomb, fort, palace, rest-house, dam, well or whatever it might be, as long as it has historic importance. We Indians have to unite to save our heritage or else we wont have anything left to be proud of, from our past. I have been adding quite a few posts on Instagram of places in and around mehrauli as of now. It would be amazing to know the history of these places.

    • Dear Azmath,

      I have stopped doing public walks and focus more on Education. So these days, I spend most of my time training School and College teachers, and telling them how to teach history. However, if you wish to walk with me some day in Delhi or around, I would love to accompany.

  17. Dear Vikranjit Singh ji,
    Thank you for your wonderful research and for compiling the comprehensive history of Tomars. A commendable literary effort indeed for which we are grateful. Will be looking forward to more posting by you. I am a Tomar and live in Lahore Pakistan. I shall be honoured if you need any information or research from this end.
    Best regards,

    Naeem Abbas

  18. There are a number of Tomar , Taur or Toor Rajputs in Pakistan most of them settled pre partition in eastern districts of Pakistan’s Punjab. A number of villages in tehsils Kharian, wazirabad, gujranwala and lahore. Most of them are those who converted to Islam at the hand of Sufi saints in 1700’s or early 1800’s. Our family names as recited by our bards and recorded lineage change to Hindu names going back seven or eight generations. My family is from a village Wayanwali near Ghakkar Mandi on GT road little offset equidistant from Gujaranwala and Wazirabad and the Tomars or Tuars or Toors own a hamlet of three villages there distinctly populated by Taur Rajputs.. We are surrounded by Cheema’s and Chatta jats on all sides. Our bards say that we came here after the chohans took over Delhi and were chasing out all claimants.

  19. In the three villages I refer they were land owners not tillers. Followed quite a lavish life style with havelis, stables, horses etc

  20. Vikramjit ji

    Brilliant but like all things brilliant this leave a desire for more. I, though never a student of history, was trying to construct the Indian history since Harshvardhan till Slave Dynasty. I am sure that after Raja Daher Sen and Muhammad bin Kasem there were many fights many kings many bravehearts who deserve to be known by later generation of Indians like us. Your write up has definitely helped me to explore possible areas.

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